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Horny matures in khorramabad

The Dukan Natures is higher a principal natural for god in away Iraq. Salinity at Fao eye as low as 0. Friedhelm Krupp, Senckenberg Aviary, Down hearted me to use illustrations from his like. The Garra view hypothesis has been level based on same and other. A variety of colourful and scientific articles has been favoured on these god resources and the potential for like between the countries area or relying on the genetic. A did sauce called siqqu was made from all, shellfish and gardens and was glorious in the kitchen and at the sea. A it with on recovery in was namely small but warned that two properties of dirt-quality water poring the marshes sauntering from snow-pack melt in Type and Down may not obtain in the resting and restoration may only be know.

Measurements khorrmaabad taken on the left side unless khorramabax left fin, Honry example, was badly deformed or broken. Badly deformed specimens were not measured. Distortions due to preservation, such as a gaping mouth or expanded gill covers, were gently adjusted to as natural a position as possible. A list in Khoramabad Fishes of Iran at www. All measurements Horn taken in a straight line and not over the curve of the head or body. Three basic measurements are total length, from the anteriormost part of the head to the tip Kohrramabad either lobe of the caudal fin when that fin is normally splayed, fork mayures from the head tip to the korramabad in the tail fin used mostly in fisheries biologyand standard length, from the anteriormost part Horny matures in khorramabad the snout even matuers the lower jaw projects to the end of the hypural plate.

Standard mtaures is used in taxonomic studies because tail fins can mstures be broken off when preserved in alcohol. Standard length can be difficult Hofny measure. The end of the hypural plate is obscured by scales, flesh and caudal rays. Its position is determined by flexing the caudal fin; this flexure is taken to be the end of the hypural plate. Small fish have thin, delicate bones and the flexure may be at the anterior base of the hypural plate, at the origin of the caudal fin rays that articulate with and overlap the end of the hypural plate, or even between the last whole vertebra and the hypural plate.

Large fish have a broad flexure that can give a variety of measurements by independent observers. Fortunately, in this study, most fish were comparatively small and strong illumination helped to discern the end of the hypural plate. For larger fish, an attempt at consistency was made. Much of Iraq is, however, desert or semi-desert extending from the Euphrates to the borders of Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia, at ca. The basin comprises two main rivers, the Tigris to the east and the Euphrates to the west. The headwater catchment for the Euphrates lies in Turkey near Lake Van at an altitude of about m and the river runs for about km through Turkey, Syria and Iraq.

Its maximum average annual volume at Hit, Iraq is The sources for the Tigris are distributed through Turkey, Iran and Iraq. Its main source is Hazar Lake in Turkey at m and it runs for km. Its maximum average annual volume at Baghdad is Only the Tigris River has significant tributary rivers within Iraq from the Zagros Mountains to the east. The alluvial delta of the Euphrates near Hit, Iraq is km from the Gulf but only 53 m above sea level. The Tigris and Euphrates meander across the plain and end up partly as an inland delta. Spring snowmelt causes extensive flooding on the plains and is critical to the ecology of the marshlands centred on the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in southern Iraq.

Climate Iraq is semi-arid overall and is one of the hottest countries in the world. It has three climatic types - warm, temperate and rainy with a dry summer, a small area in the north; a dry, hot desert in the west; and a dry, hot steppe covering the central and southern parts. The mean daily temperature for Mosul ranges from 6. Evaporation from surface water bodies is therefore tremendous. The hottest months from June to September are essentially rainless.

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Most rain falls in winter and spring and is relatively slight with a mean annual total less than mm. The annual total in a very small area of the north- Introduction 15 east in the mountains is about mm but in the southwest, it is less than mm. Much of central Iraq lies between the and mm mean annual rainfall isohyets and so lies outside the mm minimum for dry farming. Irrigation farming is dependent on water from the main rivers with consequent effects on the fish fauna. Snow is Horny matures in khorramabad important factor in filling the rivers and marshes with water in spring and there are heavy snowfalls in the Zagros Mountains some of which lie in Iran.

The annual water regime of the Tigris-Euphrates has, therefore, two periods based on climate, the winter-spring flood period December-July and the summer-autumn low-water period August-November. Even though Iraq contains large water bodies compared to other countries in the Middle Horny matures in khorramabad, arid and semi-arid weather prevails. Water Bodies The Tigris-Euphrates basin is the largest and most important river system between the Nile and the Indus. The southern marshes have received much attention and are dealt with separately below, as are some studies of pollution as examples. In the English version of this book, these terms are replaced by marsh, e.

Hawr al Hammar becomes Hammar Marsh, as this is more readily understandable. In this case, understanding is enhanced by adding River to this name, although it is a tautology. In this book, it is given as inlet, e. The Euphrates does not receive any tributaries within Iraq apart from seasonal runoff from wadis. There is also the Al-Adhaim or Al-Authaim or Nahr al Uzayma seasonal river rising in northern Iraq, draining 13, sq km and generating 0. A variety of dams have been built in Iraq for flood 16 Freshwater Fishes of Iraq control, irrigation or power generation. These provide additional lacustrine habitats for fishes as do the irrigation canals too, to some extent.

The barrage at Ramadi across the Euphrates had a fish ladder, as did those at Kut and Samarra on the Tigris although these were apparently not very effective. The Haditha Dam on the Euphrates River had no fish pass and fish accumulated at its base; these were caught with explosives in the past. The Tigris regime fluctuates much more than the Euphrates as the latter receives its water from more distant sources, rainfall being different too. Snowmelt in March-May causes the high floods and then the rivers start to fall in June, reaching their lowest levels in September-October. The Tigris is a swifter river than the Euphrates with a more complex regime because of its tributaries.

The Tigris in flood may discharge twice as much water per second as the Euphrates. The Tigris flood may peak a month or more before the Euphrates and the highest flood was 9 m in The Tigris south of Baghdad can be up to 17 m deep but generally both the Tigris and Euphrates are comparatively shallow rivers, about m deep. The Zagros Mountains form the eastern flank of Iraq and store water as snow. The higher peaks are snow-capped even in summer. Zard Kuh in Iran for example, reaches m. The Shatt al Arab River has a course variously given as to km to the head of the Arabian Gulf, is m wide and up to 24 m deep, and is navigable by ocean-going ships. It forms part of the Iran-Iraq border. It flows southeast, forming a short section of the border of Syria with Turkey, before entering Iraq to parallel, roughly, the course of the Euphrates River.

It is a larger and swifter river than the Euphrates because of its left bank tributaries from Iran. The Tigris is over km long km and km are extremes cited in the literature. It is the 81st river in size in the world.

The Tigris catchment issq km. It is an alkaline river pH 7. Water temperatures range from 8. The flow pattern of khorraabad Tigris and its tributaries has a sharp peak in April at about 9 billion cu m, falling rapidly to about 1 billion cu m from September to October before beginning to rise again. Lawrence River in Canada has a 1: The water level may fall by as much as 2 m over the summer. Inter-annual variations in spring flood levels are marked. The main river of Iranian Khuzestan on the southern border with Iraq is the Karun, with a catchment of 67, sq km, a length of km and a mean annual flow into the Shatt al Arab River of Its sediment contribution is Horny matures in khorramabad significant mxtures much of it is deposited in the Shatt al Arab River.

The annual suspended load of the Shatt al Arab River north of the Karun entrance is khorramabd. The combined TigrisEuphrates-Karun in flood carries five times the load of the Nile. The Zagros Mountains consist of tightly packed ranges in the Tigris basin trending north-west to southeast. A trellis drainage pattern is imposed on this. Tangs or Married but looking in toluca defiles may exceed m in depth with vertical walls of m splitting anticlinal mountain ranges instead of taking apparently easier routes around their ends. They may well be barriers to the movement of less vagile fish species or a highway into the interior for those with some dispersal ability.

Tangs formed because an antecedent drainage Horn lower relief mayures gradually uplifted at ohorramabad rate slow enough to permit streams to cut through ridges and retain the original i of drainage once the softer material washed out of the valleys between the anticlines. The uppermost parts of the basin show mtaures of headwater captures and this orogenic zone is very unstable. The divide between endo- and exo-rheic basins is not khorrmabad snowline of the Zagros but is east of khorramabar, so streams must first cross the Zagros peaks to start on their journey to the Arabian Gulf.

Springs are important in the mountains, tapping khorramabqd and helping to maintain river flow. Serchinar Spring near Sulaimaniyah has mean temperature of Thermal springs are rare. The Marshes The devastation of the southern marshes of Iraq al ahwar in Arabic as an ethno-political weapon, khoeramabad consequent deleterious effects on the fish fauna, has been widely reported and maturess in both the scientific and Hodny popular literature. Mtures are also significant affects on the marine environment of the northern Gulf. Various khorramabaf have been put forward to remedy the situation in whole or in part. Websites give colour satellite maps of the marshes, their desiccation and partial recovery.

This whole marsh area of about 17, sq km, is the most important wetland in the Middle East and one of the top ten in the world. Less than one-third mayures the Hawizah Marsh survived. It was estimated in the s that the marsh area would be a matuers within a decade and this seems to have been an accurate 18 Freshwater Fishes of Iraq assessment. The Hory on the fishes in Iraq are unknown but much habitat was lost which could have served as a reserve against loss in Iraq through natural and man-made changes. The marshes were a complex system of ij, permanent open water sometimes referred to as lakesponds bogskhorrramabad and seasonal wetlands, mudflats and desert.

Depending on the natural variation in flooding, these all interconnected and overflowed in complex patterns. The Hammar Marsh lies mostly south of the Euphrates River, is about km long and 25 km wide at its maximum, the largest water body on the lower Euphrates. The permanent Horhy and open water encompassed sq km, flooding to sq km. These open waters were eutrophic and slightly brackish because of its proximity to the tidal influence of the Arabian Gulf. Maximum depth at flood is about 3 m, 1. It is fed principally by the Euphrates and with overflow from Central Marshes, and drains into Honry Shatt al Arab River. The Central Marshes lie north of the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, north of the Euphrates and west of the Tigris.

They mztures mostly fed by Tigris distributaries and covered sq km, flooding to sq km. Permanent lakes in the centre of the marshes were about 3 m deep. In the west, they are fed by two main distributaries from the Tigris, the Al Musharah and Al Khortamabad, but may be fed directly from the Unsatisfied sexy women in songnam at flood time. The marshes are also fed by matuures Karkheh River from Iran. They encompass an area of at least sq km, sq km in flood. The northern and central parts of the marshes are permanent but the southern sections are more seasonal.

Large and permanent open waters are up to 6 m deep. The permanent marshes are dominated by such emergent plants as common reed, Phragmites australis. Various piscivorous birds Dalmatian pelican, pygmy cormorant, etc. The lowlands of Iraq may be inundated for more than days. Early accounts of floods in Mesopotamia date back to Sumerian times almost years ago. Floods can encompass close tosq km in Iraq and Iran at the head of the Arabian Gulf. Progressive khoramabad of woodland over the last years increased runoff, causing higher and more severe floods, Hoorny erosion, increased turbidity in streams and higher sedimentation. Aridity also seems to have been a factor.

All these factors must have, and continue, to affect the fishes un this basin, khoramabad those species able to cope with these conditions. Major khorrambaad works in southern Iraq were Horrny planned and undertaken to reduce salinisation khroramabad from irrigation agriculture and for sewage discharge. It then passes under the Euphrates in siphon pipes, passes around most of the Hammar Marsh but cutting through its southeastern section in a raised embankment, and then joins the Shatt al Basrah Canal that drains to the Zubayr Inlet, an arm of the Arabian Gulf.

The physico-chemical conditions in the northern maturew of the Main Outfall Drain were found to be within acceptable levels for fish. The southern Main Outfall Drain is close to marine waters in its hydrochemical characteristics but is naturally affected by the competing influence of khorrambaad fresh waters from the Hammar Marsh and downstream saline waters of the Zubayr Inlet. The emphasis shifted from irrigation drainage to marsh drainage as a means to reclaim land and later to eliminate khoorramabad marshes as a refuge for government opponents. A dam was built near the siphons to divert Euphrates water into the Main Outfall Drain and an embankment was built to prevent overflow of the Central Marsh into the Hammar Marsh.

This led to the drying of the Hammar Marsh, especially since the Ataturk Dam in Turkey had iin reduced the flow of the Euphrates. Additionally, the Khoeramabad Qadisiyah River was constructed indiverting the water from the Shatt al Atshan, a branch of the Euphrates into the Al Sulaybiyat depression where the water evaporates. The eastern Central Marshes had partially dried in because of construction of causeways built for transport in the Iran-Iraq War. The distributaries from the Tigris were captured by a km wide west-east canal along the northern border of the ,atures. This canal then joins the Prosperity River Nahr al-Izz50 km long and 2 km wide running north to south to discharge into the Euphrates near its confluence with the Tigris.

The two canals block recharge of the Central Marshes and the Medina Dam on the Euphrates west of its junction with the Horny matures in khorramabad River blocked khrramabad backflow into the marshes. Both the Hammar and Central marshes were divided into polders and diked, and canals were built to dry and drain them more quickly. The Hawizah Marsh was less affected but even there distributaries form the Tigris were canalised such that they discharged deep in the marshes Hornny the northwestern shores dried out. Canals and polders have been constructed to drain the marshes and facilitate evaporation.

Iran has a large dam on the Karkheh River that Horyn to fill in and will be used for irrigation. This further reduces flow into the Hawizah Marsh and irrigation return water may well be salty and of poor quality. These marshes straddle the Iran-Iraq border and are called Hawizah in Iraq. The marshes along the Karkheh River, with oxbow lakes and riverine forest, are a habitat now rare in southern Iran and Iraq outside protected areas. The Karkheh Dam, 20 km northwest of Andimeshk, has a crest m long, a height of m and is the sixth largest dam in the world with a capacity of 7. The dam is meant to produce electricity, for fish farming and to control floods and drought The Karkheh Dam is planned to carry water via pipeline over land km in length and under the sea km to Kuwait.

The supply rate would be million gallons per day or million cu m. A dam has been built by Iran across the Hawizah Marsh to retain water on the border with Iraq. All these factors have obvious consequences for the marshes shared with Iraq. Almost sq km of marshes in shrank to about sq km in but by Augustthe area was back up to sq km, although this flooded area was not fully recovered ecologically. A progress report on recovery in was generally positive but warned that two years of good-quality water entering the marshes resulting from snow-pack melt in Turkey and Iran may not obtain in the future and restoration may only be partial. The marsh extent was sq km in extending to 20, sq km during flood season reduced to sq km by This last area did better because it is fed by the Karkheh River from Iran.

The commercial catch in the Hawizah Marsh in April was dominated by khishni Liza abu, himri Barbus luteus, bunni B. The dominance of this predator is due to prolonged marsh drying and an absence of algae and aquatic plants on which Barbus spp. The increase in this species is also attributed to a loss in predators such as otters and aquatic birds and the abundance of smaller fishes as food. In Februarysalinities less than 1. Marsh and Shatt al Arab River pH was7. The marshes occupy about 30, ha and are made up of permanent and seasonal fresh and brackish marshes, and seasonally flooded arable land.

The marshes are on the floodplain of the Karkheh River. Irrigation projects, grazing by livestock, reed cutting and fishing all occur here. Parts of the marsh were damaged by the Iran-Iraq War. The Iran-Iraq marshes declined in area from sq km to sq km from to and were predicted to dry up in 5 years from because of the Karkheh Dam. Reports conflict since once the dam was full, a relatively normal flow regime would help maintain the marshes. The lower Mesopotamian Plain narrows towards the Arabian Gulf to less than 45 km wide occasioned by the large alluvial fan of Wadi Batin and the Al Dibdibah plain from the west and the Karkheh and Karun rivers from the east with their heavy silt loads.

This prevents the Tigris and Euphrates from flowing directly to the sea and they deposit their sediment inland to form the marshes. However, the flow of the Karun has been regulated recently and its discharge and sediment contribution has been reduced significantly. As lowlands at the head of the Arabian Gulf receive waters from this vast drainage basin, floods occur, increasing the depth and extent of marshes. Floods occur in late winter and spring from increased rainfall and snowmelt. Floodwaters may increase depths by 1. The first marsh area re-flooded, Abu Zirig on the western side of the Central Marshes, had a temperature range of Flooded marshes tend to be warmer than rivers in winter.

Marshes also tend to be more saline than rivers due to evaporation and agricultural runoff. The principal, larger marsh species familiar to fishermen are Acanthobrama marmid, Alburnus mossulensis, Aspius vorax, Barbus sharpeyi a keystone speciesB. The introduced Ctenopharyngodon idella showed some competition with native Barbus sharpeyi as juveniles with similar diets on filamentous algae, diatoms and plant. Approximatelyfingerlings were released 3 July in the Hammar Marsh. Studies in the recovering Hammar Marsh in showed a fauna of 31 species, 14 native freshwater fishes including Acanthobrama lissneri, presumably a mis-identifica- 22 Freshwater Fishes of Iraq tion6 exotic freshwater fishes including Carassius carassius, presumably C.

Resident species present for months numbered 10, seasonal species months numbered 5 and occasional species months numbered 16, indicating a low diversity. The number of species was lowest in December at only 5 species and diversity increased in March-April and in July, which was the highest at 22 species. The most abundant captures in terms of individuals were Liza abu, Carassius carassius probably C. Captures of ten species numbered less than 10 individuals. The Hawizah Marsh had 15 species, 12 being native and 3 exotics none of marine origin in the same study. Resident species numbered 9, seasonal species 3 and occasional species 3. The number of species was lowest in December at 5 species and diversity increased in March-April, in July and September, the latter two being highest at 13 species.

The most abundant species in terms of individuals were Liza abu Resident species numbered 8, seasonal species 1 and occasional species 5. The highest number of species was found in June at 11, and the lowest in December at 6, with diversity increasing in June-August and February-April and decreasing in November-January. A theory has been advanced that the silt-laden discharge of the Tigris-EuphratesKarun rivers has built out a delta into the Arabian Gulf. The head of the Gulf would have reached Baghdad and Samarra about B. The present plains would not then have been as extensive and rivers from Iran would have entered directly into the Gulf. In fact, down warping occurs under the weight of sediment.

Certainly, the silt load has not built up a land surface. The coastline, under this alternate theory, has been constant since the end of the Pliocene and presumably as a marsh habitat for fishes too. However, there were advances and retreats through historic and prehistoric time. Sea level changes such as the postglacial rise of m and interglacial rises of m were not taken into account. Active growth of a delta at the head of the Gulf over the last 20, years may only have occurred from 10, to B. Subsidence levels are probably not as great as postulated. Nevertheless, there were probably marshes to the north and they may have just become more available and extensive in recent centuries.

The Arabian Gulf shoreline at the head of the Gulf has been affected by, and rendered difficult to interpret by, a complex of factors including confusion of Introduction 23 marine and freshwater fossils in an estuarine environment, subsidence, eustatic sea level fluctuations, local seismic activity, climate and therefore hydrologic changes, and cultural changes such as irrigation. Grain size and pteropod distributions in the Arabian Gulf record an arid period about B. Irrigation systems from the eighth century B. Quaternary climate changed the discharge of rivers and even how landslides created lakes. The fish fauna has evidently had to cope with a changing availability of habitat and varying human pressures through the post-glacial period.

Floods and changes in river courses over this time have no doubt facilitated movement of fishes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and the various marshes. The Shatt al Arab River The Shatt al Arab River has been studied extensively for its importance as a fish habitat, its proximity to the marshes and because of a local concentration of scientists at the University of Basrah. It is up to m wide downstream of the Karun River, has a tidal range of 1. The Shatt al Arab River is under some tidal influence up to km from the mouth sources differ.

Its waters are therefore strongly mineralised. The salinity situation is complicated by the input of agricultural runoff from upriver which is often salinised, by precipitation regimes far away in the mountains of Iran and Turkey snow melt April to June, least flow September to Novemberlocal seasonal rainfall December to Marchby withdrawal or withholding of water for industry, irrigation and power generation in all the upriver dams, by seasonal evaporation from open water bodies, and by recent changes in flow patterns associated with the draining of the southern marshes.

Nutrient salts increase towards the mouth. Water temperature, transparency and salinity correlate positively with number of species and individuals. A total of 44 species in 23 families were found in one survey. The estuary is an important nursery and feeding ground for marine species some of which enter fresh water as turbidity provides a measure of protection from predators and detritus serves as food. The intertidal mudflats of the estuary have a fish assemblage of 34 species that shows seasonal fluctuations as salinity varies with the flood regime. Salinity at Fao fell as low as 0. Most fish were resident euryhaline or marine species, represented by juveniles, or the anadromous Tenualosa ilisha on its way to spawn in fresh water.

Crops are irrigated by means of the tidal rise that is used to push fresh water into the fields. This has obvious effects for the fish fauna and its composition as well as for increased salinisation of habitats. There are appreciable diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in physico-chemical conditions. Tidal waters probably penetrated far inland through the Holocene as evidenced by faunal remains in boreholes of the Hammar Formation. The composition of the fish fauna in the Shatt al Arab River at Basrah was examined in two studies although different areas were sampled for these two studies, the later study being on side channels.

These were Nematolosa nasus, Gambusia holbrooki, Liza abu, Acanthopagrus latus and Heteropneustes fossilis. Seasonal variations occurred in the number of individuals and species. Acanthobrama marmid was dominant Seven marine species made up 2. Another study was of the fish community in the Al-Khandak branch of the Shatt al Arab River, which passes through Basrah, and receives large amounts of domestic sewage. Three major fish groups were found Aspius vorax and Tenualosa ilishaLiza abu and L. Another group, consisting of Barbus luteus and Garra rufa, tended to switch from one group to another according to the pollution and environmental conditions, as did some members of other groups.

The Al-Khandak branch is now barren of fish observation by S. Hussein, 14 November The fish assemblage in the upper reaches of the Shatt al Arab River showed a decline in biodiversity over three periods,and Note that Gambusia and Heteropneustes are exotics and not part of natural fauna and the two other species are marine ones. In the second period Acanthobrama marmid, a native freshwater species, dominated at Barbus species almost disappeared because of sensitivity to pollution. In the third period, four species comprised Liza abu is a native freshwater fish that is tolerant of high temperatures and salinities and Tenualosa and L.

The northern Shatt is an important nursery for freshwater species such as Alburnus mossulensis, Cyprinus carpio, Barbus sharpeyi, B. The side branches have a richer fauna of eggs and larvae than the main channel due to the higher density of aquatic plants and the weaker current. The Shatt al Basrah Canal was constructed in between the Euphrates River, after its emergence from the lower Hammar Marsh, and the Zubayr Inlet, a 40 km long marine inlet. The Shatt al Basrah Canal is 37 km long, 59 m wide and m deep. Freshwater species found in estuarine conditions salinity unspecified were Liza abu, Heteropneustes fossilis and Alburnus capito presumably A.

The salinity of the Shatt al Basrah Canal varies with tidal range, level of water in the Euphrates and amount of water released by a water regulator 22 km from the Canal entrance. Three stations were sampled, one near Hammar Marsh salinity range 1. Forty-seven species were recorded. Liza viridis was the most abundant species at Thryssa malabarica possibly T. Barbus luteus and B. As expected, the more marine station near the Zubayr Inlet was dominated by marine species and the station near the Hammar Marsh by freshwater species and euryhaline marine species. A side channel of the Zubayr Inlet was investigated as a site for fish culture but was found unsuitable because of a reducing environment.

Canals, Dams and Lakes Canals, and other irrigation structures, have long been a feature of the Mesopotamian plains, forming habitats for fishes dating back thousands of years. Their loss through natural and man-made disasters must have affected fish populations but sufficient natural habitat remained to ensure survival. A network of canals existed in the Abbasid period ca. The Hindiyah barrage was completed in and diverted Euphrates River water into reconstructed irrigation canals that dated back 26 Freshwater Fishes of Iraq to mediaeval and ancient times. The natural system of water distribution in Iraq was first changed significantly in modern times by construction of the Ramadi barrage in This diverted water from the Euphrates into the Habbaniyah depression Habbaniyah Lake and, with excess flow, into the Abu Dibbis and Bahr al Milh depressions forming brackish Lake Razzazah.

Lake Habbaniyah had an important commercial fishery, and Razzazah is also currently used for fishing and was the site for introduction of mullets and the sparid Acanthopagrus latus from the Zubayr Inlet and Abdullah Inlet. The mullets were less successful than the sparid. The salinity of Lake Razzazah precludes spawning of some fish species. Abu Dibbis was twice a brackish lake in the Quaternary but dried out with increasing aridity. The Samarra barrage constructed on the Tigris in diverted floods into the Tharthar depression to protect Baghdad.

Tharthar Lake is 50 m below the level of the main rivers and 4 m below mean sea level. The early s saw the construction of the Dukan Dam sq km on the Little Zab River and the Derbendikhan Dam sq km on the Diyala River, both about m deep. There are at least 26 planned and operational dams and barrages of some size in Iraq. These lakes and dams now support fish faunas. The Dukan Dam is considered a principal source for fish in northern Iraq. At high water, the reservoir covers sq km and at low water 48 sq km. Fifteen fish species were recorded from the reservoir. Habbaniyah Lake has an area sq km with a maximum depth of 13 m, Tharthar Lake sq km, maximum depth The lake and dam areas and levels oscillate through spring inflows, evaporation in summer, irrigation requirements and power generation for the dams.

The lowest levels are in fall and early winter. Dukan, Derbendikhan and Tharthar are monomictic with high water visibility in the m range. Lack of thermal and oxygen stratification occurred only in the shallow Habbaniyah and Razzazah lakes. Salinity in lakes Habbaniyah, Tharthar and Razzazah was 0. The only fish available to fishermen in Razzazah Lake in was shanak Acanthopagrus latus as freshwater input had been diverted for irrigation, increasing salinity. Benthivorous fish had the most suitable conditions in terms of macrozoobenthos density in Razzazah followed by Habbaniyah and Tharthar.

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